How journalists innovate in the newsroom. Proposing a model of the diffusion of innovations in media outlets
Keywords:journalism, media innovation, news production, commercialization, diffusion of innovations
This paper explores how innovation emerges in the media through the views of journalists who are leading the process of newsroom change in Spain. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 20 journalists working in some of the most innovative outlets, according to the 2014 Index of Journalism Innovation in Spain (García-Avilés, Carvajal-Prieto, De Lara-González, & Arias-Robles, 2018). The results highlight the importance of innovations in content production, internal organization, distribution, and commercialization as the drivers of change in the media industry. Our study also reveals several factors that shape both the practice and implementation of innovations in newsrooms. We draw on these factors to outline a model of diffusion of media innovation.
Anderson, C. W. (2013). Rebuilding the news: Metropolitan journalism in the digital age. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Anderson, C. W., Bell, E., & Shirky, C. (2012). Post-industrial journalism: Adapting to the present. Tow Center for Digital Journalism. Retrieved from http://towcenter.org/research/post-industrial-journalism-adapting-to-the-present-2/
Anthony, S. D. (2012). The little black book of innovation: How it works, how to do it. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
Baregheh, A. Rowley, J., & Sambrook, S. (2009). Towards a multidisciplinary definition of innovation. Management Decision, 47(8), 1323-1339. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740910984578
Baumann, S. (2013). Adapting to the brave new world: Innovative organizational strategies for media companies. In T. Storsul & A. H. Krumsvik (Eds.), Media Innovation: A Multidisciplinary Study of Change, (pp. 77–92). Gothenburg: Nordicom.
Bleyen, V. A., Lindmark, S., Ranaivoson, H., & Ballon, P. (2014). A typology of media innovations: Insights from an exploratory study. The Journal of Media Innovations, 1(1), 28–51. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v1i1.800
Boczkowski, P. J. (2004). Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Bruno, N., & Nielsen, R. K. (2012). Survival is success: Journalistic online startups in Western Europe. Oxford: The Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.
Bruns, A. (2014). Media innovations, user innovations, societal innovations. The Journal of Media Innovations, 1(1), 13-27. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v1i1.827
Carvajal, M., García-Avilés, J. A., & González, J. L. (2012). Crowdfunding and non-profit media: The emergence of new models for public interest journalism. Journalism Practice, 6(5-6), 638–647. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2012.667267
Christensen, C. M. (1997). The innovator’s dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Dal Zotto, C., & van Kranenburg, H. (Eds.). (2008). Management and innovation in the media industry. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Dewar, R. D., & Duton, J. E. (1986). The adoption of radical and incremental innovations: an empirical analysis. Management Science, 32(11), 1422–1433. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.32.11.1422
Dogruel, L. (2013). Opening the black box: Conceptualizing of media innovation. In T. Storsul & A. H. Krumsvik (Eds.), Media innovation: A multidisciplinary study of change (pp. 29–44). Gothenburg: Nordicom.
Dogruel, L. (2014). What is so special about media innovations? A characterization of the field. The Journal of Media Innovations, 1(1), 52–69. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v1i1.665
Fagerberg, J. (2006). Innovation: A guide to the literature. In J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery, & R. Nelson (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Innovation (pp. 11–28). New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199286805.001.0001
Francis, D., & Bessant, J. (2005). Targeting innovation and implications for capability development. Technovation, 25(3), 171–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2004.03.004
García-Avilés, J. A., (2012) Innovation management in crossmedia production: Leading change in the newsroom. In I. Ibrus & C. A. Scolari (Eds.), Crossmedia innovations: Texts, markets, institutions (pp. 220–239). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
García-Avilés, J. A., Carvajal-Prieto, M., de Lara-González, A., & Arias-Robles, F. (2018). Developing an index of media innovation in a national market: The case of Spain. Journalism Studies 19(1), 24-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2016.1161496
Habann, F. (2008). Towards a methodological foundation of media innovation research. In C. D. Zotto & H. v. Kranenburg (Eds.), Management and innovation in the media industry (pp. 67–86). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Howitt, D. (2013). Introduction to qualitative methods in psychology. Harlow, UK: Pearson.
Küng, L. (2013). Innovation, technology and organizational change. In T. Storsul & A. H. Krumsvik (Eds.), Media innovation: A multidisciplinary study of change (pp. 2–12). Gothenburg: Nordicom.
Lowrey, W. (2011). Institutionalism, news organizations and innovation. Journalism Studies, 12(1), 64–79. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2010.511954
Lüders, M. (2016). Innovating with users online? How network-characteristics affect collaboration for innovation. The Journal of Media Innovations, 3(1), 4–22. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v3i1.2709
Nee, R. C. (2013). Creative destruction: An exploratory study of how digitally native news nonprofits are innovating online journalism practices. International Journal on Media Management, 15(1), 3–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/14241277.2012.732153
Pavlik, J. V. (2013). Innovation and the future of journalism. Digital Journalism, 1(2), 181–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2012.756666
Plesner, U. (2009). An actor-network perspective on changing work practices: communication technologies as actants in news work. Journalism, 10(5), 604–626. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884909106535
Raetzsch, C. (2015). Innovation through practice: Journalism as a structure of public communication. Journalism Practice, 9(1), 65–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2014.928466
Rodgers, S. (2015). Foreign objects? Web content management systems, journalistic cultures and the ontology of software. Journalism, 16(1), 10–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884914545729
Rogers, E. M. (1995). The diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.
Schumpeter, J. (1934). The theory of economic development. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Siles, I., & Boczkowski, P. J. (2012a). At the intersection of content and materiality: A texto-material perspective on the use of media technologies. Communication Theory, 22(3), 227–249. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2012.01408.x
Siles, I., & Boczkowski, P. J. (2012b). Making sense of the newspaper crisis: A critical assessment of existing research and an agenda for future work. New Media & Society, 14(8), 1375–1394. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444812455148
Spyridou, L.-P.; Matsiola, M.; Veglis, A.; Kalliris, G., & Dimoulas, C. (2013). Journalism in a state of flux: Journalists as agents of technology innovation and emerging news practices. International Communication Gazette, 75(1), 76–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048512461763
Steensen, S. (2009). What’s stopping them? Towards a grounded theory of innovation in online journalism. Journalism Studies, 10(6), 821–836. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700902975087
Storsul, T., & Krumsvik, A. H. (2013). What is media innovation? In T. Storsul & A. H. Krumsvik (Eds.), Media innovation: A multidisciplinary study of change (pp. 13–26). Gothenburg: Nordicom.
The New York Times. (2014). Internal memo from the Newsroom Innovation Team. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/document/225418774/NY-TIMES-Innovation-Report-resumo
Usher, N. (2014). Making news at the New York Times. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. https://doi.org/10.3998/nmw.12848274.0001.001
Weiss, A. S., & Domingo, D. (2010). Innovation processes in online newsrooms as actor-networks and communities of practice. New Media and Society, 12(7), 1156–1171. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444809360400
Westlund, O., & Krumsvik, A. H. (2014). Perceptions of intra-organizational collaboration and media workers’ interests in media innovations. The Journal of Media Innovations, 1(2), 52–74. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v1i2.858
Westlund, O., & Lewis, S. C. (2014). Agents of media innovations: Actors, actants, and audiences. The Journal of Media Innovations, 1(2), 10–35. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v1i2.856
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).