Mutual Shaping of a CMS for Social Journalism in a Hierarchical News Organization
Keywords:Social journalism, content management systems, mutual shaping of technology, diffusion of innovations, social shaping of technology, hierarchy of influences model, information and communication technologies, newsroom studies, case study
This article presents a case study of a news organization examined when it was introducing a proprietary content management system (CMS) for social journalism. The CMS enables users to publish, form groups, and follow one another to create personalized local health news feeds. Applying the mutual shaping of technology (MST) construct in analysis organized according to the hierarchy of influences model, this article examines how the CMS influenced the news organization and vice versa. Even in an organization with a great deal of control over a small innovation, the predominant perception was that the CMS was a technological incursion rather than a tool to be molded. Instead of asserting professional norms over the technology as social shapers, journalists focused on managing changes in routines and organizational structures and on managing perceptions about the “experiment.” The project has stagnated. This article discusses why, and it addresses the usefulness of the MST construct for examining innovation iterations in news organizations.
Bardoel, J. (1996). Beyond journalism: a profession between information society and civil society. European Journal of Communication, 11(3), 283-302. http://ejc.sagepub.com/content/11/3/283.short
Bardoel, J., & Deuze, M. (2001). ’Network journalism’: Converging competencies of old and new media professionals. Australian Journalism Review, 23(3), 91-103. https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/3201
Berners-Lee, T. (2010). Long Live the Web. Scientific American, 303(6), 80-85. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/long-live-the-web/
Bijker, W., Hughes, T., & Pinch, T. (1989). The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology. Cambridge, Ma.: MIT Press.
Boczkowski, P. J. (1999). Mutual shaping of users and technologies in a national virtual community. Journal of Communication, 49(2), 86-108. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02795.x/abstract
Boczkowski, P. J. (2004a). The Mutual Shaping of Technology and Society in Videotex Newspapers: Beyond the Diffusion and Social Shaping Perspectives. Information Society, 20(4), 255-267. http://scholars.northwestern.edu/pubDetail.asp?t=pm&id=4644349043&
Boczkowski, P. J. (2004b). The Processes of Adopting Multimedia and Interactivity in Three Online Newsrooms. Journal of Communication, 54(2), 197-213. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02624.x/abstract
Castells, M. (2000). The Rise of the Network Society (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Deuze, M. (2006). Participation, remediation, bricolage: Considering principal components of a digital culture. The Information Society, 22(2), 63-75. https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/3200
Deuze, M. (2008). The changing context of news work: Liquid journalism and monitorial citizenship. International Journal of Communication, 2, 848-865. http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/290/197
Deuze, M. (2011). Managing Media Work. London: Sage Publications.
Fishman, M. (1980). Manufacturing the news: University of Texas Press.
Flichy, P. (2007). Understanding technological innovation: a socio-technical approach. Northampton, Ma.: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219-245. http://qix.sagepub.com/content/12/2/219.short?rss=1&ssource=mfr
Gans, H. (1979). Deciding what's news. New York: Pantheon Books.
Groves, J. (2012). WellCommons.com: Breaking down the barriers between journalists and the community. #ISOJ (2), 2: The official research journal of the International Symposium on Online Journalism. (paper not available online) https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCUQFjAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fonline.journalism.utexas.edu%2F2012%2Fpresentations%2FGroves.pptx&ei=6rv_VMO9FPXIsAS71IC4BA&usg=AFQjCNEbcP2XGXrdDMygw3Dqx0tb0fH5dg&sig2=ihajd-HuODS7PXFmneVZMg
Hackett, R. A. (2006). Is peace journalism possible? Three frameworks for assessing structure and agency in news media. Conflict and Communication Online, 5(2), 1-13. http://www.cco.regener-online.de/2006_2/pdf/hackett.pdf
Hermida, A. (2010). From TV to Twitter: How ambient news became ambient journalism. Media/Culture Journal, 13(2). http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/220
Hermida, A. (2011). Mechanisms of Participation. In Participatory Journalism: Guarding Open Gates at Online Newspapers. Singer, J. B., Hermida, A., Domingo, D., Heinonen, A., Paulussen, S., Quandt, T., Reich, and Vujnovic, M. (Eds.) (2011). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell., 11-33.
Hermida, A. (2012). Social journalism: exploring how social media is shaping journalism. In The Handbook of Global Online Journalism. E. Siapera & A. Veglis (Eds.) (2012). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 309-328. http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1444338552.html
Hermida, A., & Thurman, N. (2008). A Clash of Cultures: The integration of user-generated content within professional journalistic frameworks at British newspaper websites. Journalism practice, 2(3), 343-356. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17512780802054538
Jalote, P., & Agrawal, N. (2005, December). Using defect analysis feedback for improving quality and productivity in iterative software development. In Information and Communications Technology, 2005. Enabling Technologies for the New Knowledge Society: ITI 3rd International Conference on (pp. 703-713). Ieee. https://www.iiitd.edu.in/~jalote/papers/DefectPrevention.pdf
Karlsson, M., & Strömbäck, J. (2010). Freezing the flow of online news. Journalism Studies, 11(1), 2-19. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14616700903119784
Küng, L. (2008). Strategic management in the media: Theory to practice. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage.
Lewis, S. C. (2012). From journalism to information: The transformation of the Knight Foundation and news innovation. Mass Communication and Society, 15(3), 309-334. http://sethlewis.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/2012-Lewis-2012-MCS.pdf
Lievrouw, L. A., & Livingstone, S. M. (2002). Handbook of new media : social shaping and consequences of ICTs. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage.
MacKenzie, D., & Wajcman, J. (1999). The Social Shaping of Technology. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
Nip, J. Y. M. (2009). Routinization of Charisma. In J. Rosenberry & B. S. J. III (Eds.), Public Journalism 2.0: The Promise and Reality of a Citizen-Engaged Press (pp. 135-148). London: Routledge.
Paterson, C., & Domingo, D. (2008). Making online news: The ethnography of new media production. New York: Peter Lang.
Platt, J. (1992). "Case Study" in American Methodological Thought. Current Sociology, 40(1), 17-48. http://csi.sagepub.com/content/40/1/17.full.pdf+html
Reese, S. D. (2001). Understanding the global journalist: A hierarchy-of-influences approach. Journalism Studies, 2(2), 173-187. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Stephen_Reese2/publication/314104420_Understanding_the_Global_Journalist_a_hierarchy-of-influences_approach/links/58ebc6704585153b60c97dd0/Understanding-the-Global-Journalist-a-hierarchy-of-influences-approach.pdf
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.
Rodgers, S. (2015). Foreign objects? Web content management systems, journalistic cultures and the ontology of software. Journalism, 16(1), 10-26. http://www.academia.edu/7818339/Foreign_objects_Web_content_management_systems_journalistic_cultures_and_the_ontology_of_software
Shoemaker, P. J., & Reese, S. D. (1996). Mediating the message: theories of influences on mass media content (2nd ed.). White Plains, N.Y.: Longman.
Shoemaker, P.J., & Reese, S.D. (2013). Mediating the message in the 21st Century: A media sociology perspective. New York: Routledge.
Shoemaker, P. J., & Vos, T. P. (2009). Gatekeeping Theory. New York: Routledge.
Singer, J. B. (2011). Journalism in a network. In M. Deuze (Ed.), Managing Media Work (pp.103-109). Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage.
Singer, J. B., Hermida, A., Domingo, D., Heinonen, A., Paulussen, S., Quandt, T., Reich, and Vujnovic, M. (2011). Participatory journalism. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Tuchman, G. (1978). Making news: A study in the construction of reality. New York: Free Press.
Voakes, P. S. (1997). Social influences on journalists' decision making in ethical situations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 12(1), 18-35. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327728jmme1201_2
Weiss, R. (1995). Learning from strangers. New York: Free Press.
Yin, R. (1989). Case study research: Design and methods, 2nd Ed. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage.
Yin, R. (2008). Case study research: Design and methods, 4th Ed. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution BY 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).