Style Rules


Style rules and manuscript instructions for authors and editors

For a general presentation of the orientation of the journal and the conditions for publication, see Author Guidelines.

These rules and instructions are intended for articles in English. For texts in Swedish, Danish and Norwegian, see the corresponding “Skrivregler och manuskriptanvisningar för författare och redaktörer”.


The languages of the journal are primarily Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. Authors from Iceland and Finland are welcome to submit articles in English or one of the Scandinavian languages mentioned above. Articles submitted from other countries can also be in English. Authors whose native language is not English should have the language of their text professionally revised before it is submitted to the journal for assessment. Texts which are not of an acceptable standard will not be considered.

Texts in English can follow either British or American rules for writing and spelling, but one form only should be used consistently in the same text. These are the most widely used style guides:

European English

Modern Humanities Research Association Style Guide

US English

(requires a subscription, but most universities and research institutes should have access to it)


To be considered for publication, all texts must follow the instructions below.

Main articles may consist of a maximum of 7,000 words, including notes, sources and references. For other types of articles and reviews the limit is 3,000 words, and in these cases the editorial board should be contacted in advance. Questions and suggestions for reviews can be sent directly to the editor responsible for reviews.

Manuscripts should be supplied in two versions. One complete, as specified below, and one intended for peer review, where details that can identify the author are removed. Texts should be delivered as e-mail attachments.

If the manuscript is adopted for peer review, the revised version should be accompanied by an account of how the author has related to the criticism, and changes should be marked in the text.

All manuscripts except reviews must contain the following material in the following order: - Title, subtitle, author’s name - Abstract of max. 150 words along with 5–10 keywords (separated by commas and ending with a point) - The text itself - Notes (if any) - References (sources and cited literature)  - Author data - Pictures (if any) with captions as separate documents

When the text has been reviewed and approved for publication, the author must submit a proofread manuscript ready for layout. No further proofs will be sent. Any major changes to the text will be communicated to the author for approval, but the editors reserve the right to make minor linguistic changes and formal adjustments.

It is up to the author to have the English corrected, if necessary, by a native speaker.

Style instructions

To avoid excess work for the editors, the text should be formatted as follows: 

- Left aligned, Times New Roman 12, line spacing 1.5 in MS Word. Paginated. 

- Avoid all formatting that makes layout more difficult. Do not insert any manual line breaks or page breaks. No hyphenation. No automatic spacing before or after a paragraph. Search for double spaces between words, replace with single spaces.

- The main title and subtitle should be written in bold, the author’s name in italics. Put a point between main title and subtitle, or exceptionally a dash or colon; if a colon is used, the subtitle must begin with a capital letter. If there are two authors, put & between the names; if there are three or more authors, put a comma between the first authors and & between the last two. Authors are asked not to choose excessively long or descriptive titles, subtitles or subheadings; convey instead the focus and problem considered in the article/section.

- Sections within the text should be marked with subheadings in bold. Try to use just one level of subheadings. Do not start the article with a subheading.

- Mark a new paragraph with a blank line (first-line indents will be inserted when the text is set).

- Short quotations and single words should be incorporated in the running text, with quotation marks before and after, and they should not be italicized. Omitted words in quotations are indicated by [...]. Put the point outside the quotation if it is not a complete sentence.

- Quotation marks should be of the double curly typographical kind (“...”); do not use straight typewriter quotation marks ("...") or guillemets (»...«). Single quotation marks (‘...’) are used for quotations within quotations, not otherwise. If English is correctly set as the language in MS Word and the option “smart quotes” is selected, the quotation marks will appear as the proper “sixes and nines” (or ‘six and nine’). (With typefaces like Times New Roman it is clearly visible if apostrophes and quotation marks are correct.)

- Do not use an acute accent (´) where an apostrophe (’) is required. 

- Quotations of more than about 40 words are set off as block quotations and marked with smaller line spacing (or smaller type size), without italicization, indentation or quotation marks. Indicate omitted words with [...].

- Titles of books, exhibitions, projects, films, newspapers and journals are italicized. Titles of journal articles are not italicized but set in quotation marks. Italics can also be used to mark words in other languages than that of the article and phrases or (sparingly) specific terms or words which the author wishes to emphasize. 

- In English titles of institutions, books (not articles), exhibitions, projects, films, newspapers and journals and the like, the main words are written with initial capitals. Example: Code of Ethics for Museums, Journal of Material Culture.

- Notes are numbered continuously in the text with Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3 etc.) after a punctuation mark, or immediately after a specific word in the middle of a sentence. Notes are grouped as endnotes after the article. Use notes chiefly for necessary explanatory additions, not for matter which ought to be incorporated in the text. References which are not to literature can also be presented in notes (interviews, archival material, web references – see below). Acknowledgements, if any, should come in the first note, together with any other information concerning the background to the text.

- Put a point after abbreviations. British English distinguishes between abbreviations (Prof.) and contractions (Dr, Mr, St) which retain the last letter of the word and are not followed by a point. American English has a point in both cases. Authors are urged to use abbreviations sparingly (except possibly in notes and parentheses); “for example” is preferable to “e.g.” Lists of abbreviations can be found among the style guides cited above.

- Use an en-dash – among other things – for interposed subordinate clauses or explanations, with a space before and after. Also use an en-dash (not a hyphen) when it means “to” as in “1892– 1914” or “the Paris–Berlin train” or in page references: “37–44”. Use an ordinary hyphen in compound words and names: “half-way”, “Birket-Smith”, “Anglo-German”.

- Numbers and dates: Numbers are written in letters up to 20, then with figures unless it feels inconsistent. Numbers of four figures and above are grouped as 5,000, 135,000 (with thousands separated by commas). The % sign is used only in tables and notes, otherwise spell it out as “per cent” (British) or “percent” (American). To avoid misunderstandings caused by different ways of stating dates in figures, spell out the month (also in references): In British 12 August 2010 and in American August 12, 2010, with a comma after the year where needed. If the number of a journal needs to be stated in the text or the notes, write it as Nordisk Museologi 1/2013. Avoid “no.” unless it is essential. Write a span of years as 1985–89, a decade as “the 1980s”, but spell out centuries: “the twenty-first century”. Page ranges are written 413–418, 513–598 (not 413–8 or 513–98). 

References: sources and literature

Sources and literature, besides being presented in the text and in notes (if any), are listed at the end of the article under headings such as Unpublished Sources, Interviews, Internet Sources, Literature, etc. 

References to literature are given in the text stating the author’s/authors’ surname(s), year of publication and page references (if necessary) in parentheses: (Hudson 1975:213, Frykman & Gilje 2003, Daugbjerg 2005). If the author is specifically named in the same sentence it is sufficient to state the year and page reference in the parentheses. In the case of more than two authors state the first followed by et al. (Greenwood et al. 2008). If the reference concerns multiple pages state preferably the exact range or f. (one page after the stated page number) or ff. (more than one page after the stated page number) immediately after the page number, with no space: (Hudson 1975:213f.). If there is more than one reference in the same parenthesis, they should be put in chronological order and separated by semicolons. References from the same year are placed in alphabetical order. If the same author has more than one publication from the same year they are marked with a, b, c, etc. after the year, both in the parenthesis and in the reference list. If there are different authors with the same surname, state the initial in the parenthetical reference (followed by a point) to distinguish them. No ed. or eds. is included in the parenthetical references. If the same source is referred to later, write it in full again for clarity, rather than ibid., op.cit.

Web addresses should not occur in the text; such references go in the notes. If there are multiple web references they can be assembled and numbered under a separate heading: Internet Sources. Then a parenthetical reference can be made in the text to “Internet source 1, 2” etc. For material from the Internet, state as far as possible the same details concerning author, year, publication, publisher, etc. as for printed books and journal articles. Web publications with an author are presented by author name, followed by details of the year of publication, article title, journal title, book title, editor and equivalent data. For other kinds of web publications, state the name of the website, blog or equivalent. In both cases quotation marks are placed around what can be perceived as an “article” while the title of the “work” is italicized (in the same way as with printed articles and books). At the end comes the web address (URL) and accession date in parentheses immediately after the address: (accessed 5 August 2013). 

Articles in newspapers and on the Internet should preferably be referred to by author and not be anonymous.

Archival material, interviews, inquiry material etc. can be referred to in the running text or in notes but should always be presented as source material. 

Arranging the reference list (Literature): The article text and the reference list should be read against each other so that no reference is missing from the list and nothing is in the list which is not mentioned in the text. Authors are asked to follow the instructions below and take care with punctuation marks, the order of the elements, etc., to avoid causing extra work for the editorial staff. 

The reference list must be ordered alphabetically by the author’s surname, then chronologically if there is more than one work by the same author, with the surname repeated (i.e., do not use a dash or ditto marks). Always state the full forename, not reduced to an initial. If an author is represented both with works written alone and with works written together with others, the former should come first. 

For multiple authors or editors of the same work, the names after the first one are shown as Forename Surname. If there are more than three authors/editors, et al. may be substituted for those coming after. For two authors use ampersand (&) between the names; for three or more names put a comma between the first ones and ampersand between the last two. 

For alphabetization, note that English does not count letters with diacritics as separate letters. There is no letter in the alphabet after Z. The Scandinavian letters Ö and Ø must be treated like O, Ä like A and Æ like AE.

Book titles are written in italics. English titles have initial capitals except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions. Journal articles and chapters in edited volumes are not italicized but set in quotation marks, with a point before the final quotation marks. See the examples below. For all kinds of publications, state not only the main title but also the subtitle, separated by a point unless a colon or dash is expressly used in the cited work. If a colon is used, the subtitle must begin with a capital letter.

The place of publication is followed by a colon and the name of the publisher. For English publishers and institutions the main words must have initial capitals. If necessary, indicate US states (Cambridge, Mass.). Series titles are not normally stated. State page ranges for journal articles and book chapters, not for articles in newspapers or unpaginated web publications. Web addresses should be placed after all other data in the entry concerned; leave any line break to the computer. For articles with DOI numbers, use these instead.

Below are some examples of how to format entries for some common types of publications in reference lists. For other types, authors should format their references following similar patterns. For publications with no author, official reports, etc., authors should check how they are catalogued in major national library databases and choose a principle to apply consistently in the article. 

It is an advantage for the editors if the reference list has the same format as regards typeface and type size as the rest of the text, with blank lines between the references (hanging indents are added as part of the typesetting).

  1. Monograph with one or more author Hudson, Kenneth 1975. A Social History of Museums. What the Visitor Thought. London: Macmillan. Sveningsson, Malin, Mia Lövheim & Magnus Bergquist 2003. Att fånga nätet. Kvalitativa metoder för internetforskning. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Greenwood, Royston, Christine Oliver, Kerstin Sahlin & Roy Sudday (eds.) 2008. The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Institutionalism. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

New edition/reissue In the text: (Broberg & Tydén 2005/1991) In the reference list: Broberg, Gunnar & Mattias Tydén 2005/1991. Oönskade i folkhemmet. Rashygien och sterilisering i Sverige. Stockholm: Dialogus.

Books in press

In the text: (Fernstål et al., in press)

In the reference list: Fernstål, Lotta, Li Kolker & Fredrik Svanberg, in press. Polysemantiskt digitalt museisamlande. Stockholm: Historiska museet.

  1. Volumes with one or more editors Frykman, Jonas & Nils Gilje (eds.) 2003. Being There. New Perspectives on Phenomenology and the Analysis of Culture. Lund: Nordic Academic Press. Knell, Simon (ed.) 2004. Museums and the Future of Collecting. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  2. Chapter in edited volume Note that the name(s) of the editor(s) must take the form Forename Surname.

Brenna, Brita 2012. “Gjort er gjort.” In Anita Maurstad & Marit Anne Hauan (eds.). Museologi på norsk. Universitetsmuseenes gjøren. Oslo: Akademika forlag, 231–237. Hagström, Charlotte & Lena Marander-Eklund 2005. “Att arbeta med frågelistor. En introduktion.” In Charlotte Hagström (ed.). Frågelistan som källa och metod. Lund: Studentlitteratur, 9–29. 

  1. Journal article For English-language journals the title is written with initial capitals for everything but articles, conjunctions and prepositions; for journals in other languages write the title as the journal does. The principle for stating volume (if indicated), number and page range is “volume:number, pages”.

Daugbjerg, Mads 2005. “De gode gamle dage genoplivet.” Nordisk Museologi 1, 3–14. Falk, John & Lynn Dierking 1997. “School field trips. Assessing their long-term impact.” Curator 40:3, 2111–2217. Merriman, Nick 2008. “Museum collecting and sustainability.” Museum Management and Curatorship 17:1, 3–21.

  1. Electronic sources Choose any university library’s recommendations as to how digital journals and other electronic publications, official documents, websites, blogs etc. should be referred to, and stick to those recommendations.

Note the difference between this material and ordinary books which have been made available on the Internet. For the latter it is not necessary to state a web address as long as all other bibliographical data are complete.

Common errors to check for: - Do all the parenthetical references in the text also appear in the reference list? Are all the items in the reference list mentioned in the text? Is the year of publication the same in both places? Solution: read the text against the list. - Are the references in the same parenthesis in chronological order? Are the entries in the reference list in alphabetical order? - Are the subtitles (if there are subtitles) of all books included? - Has an editor mistakenly been stated as an author? - Are both place of publication and publisher included? In that order? - Only the title of a journal should be italicized, not the volume, number and pages. - Are the authors’/editors’ forenames and surnames in the right order?  - Is the page range for journal articles and book chapters included?  7/8

Pictures, diagrams and tables The editors are pleased to see articles with illustrations, where all submitted material is ready for press. Photographs should be supplied digitally as separate files, not incorporated in the text. They should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi at 100% scale and preferably be in jpg or tif format. Tables should be included in the manuscript (Word) but figures and diagrams sent as separate image files in a format that suits the size of the journal. Files larger than 5 MB should be sent via Dropbox after agreement with the editors.

Illustrations are numbered continuously as Fig. 1/fig. 1 etc., regardless of whether they are photographs, tables or whatever. Captions should be supplied in a separate document. If the author wants to refer to an illustration in the text it should be as follows: “... in the first showcase (fig. 1)”. Alternatively (Fig. 1.) as a separate sentence. For illustrations to which there is no reference of this kind in the text, mark in the manuscript where the picture should be placed, to assist the editors.

The author is responsible for ensuring that the copyright of photographers and others is respected and that permission has been obtained for publication of pictorial material; also aspects such as ethics and integrity should be considered (however, the editors make their judgement as well). Dates, names of photographers, archives and illustrators, where applicable, should be included in the caption. The arrangement should be according to one of the following alternative examples (note the spaces and punctuation):

Fig. 1. Caption text. Photo Forename Surname, 2012. Fig. 1. Caption text including date. Photo Forename Surname. Fig. 1. Caption text. Photo Forename Surname, Archive... (including date). Fig. 1. Caption text. Photo Archive... (including date).

Author data  Author’s name, title, postal address, e-mail address and website (if applicable) are written in italics and placed at the end of articles and project presentations (shorter in reviews, see below). 

In English texts, a doctoral degree is stated as Ph.D.

The following information is expected (note line breaks and punctuation): Author’s name and title, job title if relevant, institution E-mail address (without hyperlink)

Postal address, including country code, postal code and country Web profile, homepage or the like, if relevant

Example: Eva Silvén, Ph.D.,Curator

Nordiska museet Box 27820 SE-115 93 Stockholm, Sweden

Alternatively, depending on the topic and context of the article, but briefly: Eva Silvén, Ph.D. in ethnology, curator responsible for..., leader of the project...

Reviews of exhibitions, dissertations and other books As mentioned above, reviews may be a maximum 3,000 words. The manuscript must include the following elements and otherwise follow the instructions above (note the punctuation):

Books - Author’s Surname, First name, if more than one, the last separated by &. Alternatively the editor’s/editors’ names equivalently, followed by (ed./eds.). Full stop. - Title. Subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher. Year of publication. Number of pages (000 pp.). ISBN. - The text itself - Reviewer’s name and title, in italics - Reviewer’s institution (if any), in italics - Reviewer’s e-mail address, in italics

Exhibitions - The exhibition’s name - Where? When? - The text (the review) - The reviewer’s name and title, in italics  - The reviewer’s institution (if any), in italics  - The reviewer’s e-mail address, in italics 

Questions about publication Questions can be put to the country editors of the journal or to the editor in chief ( Editors). Authors will receive a response to manuscripts within two months after submission. No material is returned after publication and the editors assume no responsibility for unsolicited material.

Publication does not entail any remuneration or charge to the author, who will receive 1–3 copies of the issue depending on the length of the contribution. Those who wish can also receive their text as a pdf file which can be freely disseminated in relevant contexts. Through publication the author gives approval for the text to be made available digitally, in parallel with the printed issue.