Gatekeeper-modellen i skolen - erfaringer fra et pilotprosjekt om selvmordsforebygging

Forfattere

  • Anne Marita Milde
  • Annie Norevik

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5617/suicidologi.5435

Sammendrag

Suicidal atferd og selvskading utgjør et alvorlig folkehelseproblem
og omfatter de fleste aldersgrupper fra skolebarn til eldre.
Det er sjeldent at barn under 14 år tar sitt eget liv, men det
finnes evidens hos unge voksne for at tanker om å ta sitt eget
liv har debutert allerede i tidlig skolealder. Selvskading er langt
hyppigere og har størst forekomst i tenårene og tidlig 20-årene.
Skolen er den arenaen som møter flest barn og unge. Økt fokus
på psykisk helse i skolen stiller krav til tiltak samt kompetanse
blant skolepersonell. Risiko for selvmord eller selvskading blant
elever er til stede ved alle skoler i landet. Opplevelse av tap,
som når familiemedlemmer tar sitt eget liv, gir en status som
etterlatt, og det er en økt selvmordsrisiko blant ungdommer
etter foreldres selvmord. Dette krever ekstra ivaretagelse og
oppfølging i skolehverdagen. Skolepersonell kan gjennom
kompetanseheving iverksette forebyggende tiltak. Denne
artikkelen tar for seg erfaringer med gatekeeper eller portvaktmodellen i grunnskolen og dens nytteverdi. Et gjennomført
pilotprosjekt ved 16 skoler har ført til opprettelse av et nettverk
med skolepersonell som ressurspersoner. 14 skoleansatte som
har gjennomført kurs og opplæring i selvmordsforebygging
har blitt kartlagt for kunnskap om og ferdigheter i selvmordsforebygging samt holdninger til selvmord gjennom fokusgruppeintervju. Resultatene viser nytteverdi av implementering
av portvaktmodellen i skolen i form av økt kunnskap om, og
opplevelse av bedre ferdigheter i, å håndtere selvmordsatferd.
Kompetansehevingsprogram i selvmordsforebygging bør
utvides på et regionalt og nasjonalt nivå.

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